Abrasion – The wearing away of fiber by rubbing away.
Absorbency – The ability of a fiber to absorb liquid.
Acetate – A fiber manufactured from cellulose refined from cotton and/or wood pulp.
Acid Dye – A dye which is applied to fiber from an acid dye solutions. It is fairly colorfast to light and laundering.
Acrylic – A artificial manufactured fiber from long-chain synthetic polymers.
Adjective Dye – A dye which requires the use of mordents to bind the dye to the fiber
Akha Spindle – Drop spindles used in the northern region of Thailand by the Akha native people. Best suited for spinning short-stapled fine fibres such as cotton, silk, cashmere, angora, qiviut, or wool due to the spindles light weight.
Alpaca – Fiber from the alpaca llama. The fiber is softer, finer, more lustrous and stronger than sheep’s wool, but in relatively short supply.
Alum – A long used naturally occurring mordant
Ammonia – A natrually occurring alkaline dye.
Ammonium Sulfate – Used for evenness when using light to medium shades.
Anti-chlor Concentrate –Removes residual chlorine left when removing color with bleach.
Aniline Dyes – Also called Coal Tar Dyes. This term is used with reference to any synthetic organic dyes and pigments. Aniline dyes are classified according to their degree of brightness.
Animal Fibers – Protein-based hair, fur, and cocoon materials taken from animals. Typical animal fibers include, wool, mohair, llama, alpaca, cashmere, camel and vicuna and cocoon material (silk).
Angora – Downy soft, fluffy hair that is obtained from angora rabbits. This fiber is usually blended with wool or other fibers to make it easier to spin.
Angora Goat – The goat that produces “mohair”
Apparel Wool – Wool’s that are manufactured into cloth, which is then used for clothing.
Attenuation – The reduction of the fiber from the roving into a strand.
Axle – The shaft of which on object can revolve around. Such as the metal axle on the wheel of a spinning wheel or the center dowel of a drop spindle.
Backcross – Mating a crossbred animal to one of the parental breeds.
Bactrian Camel – The camel breed that camel hair comes from
Balanced – A plied yarn that doesn’t twist back on itself.
Basic Dyes – A class of dyes that act as bases. Their color base is not water soluble but can be converted into a salt.
Bast Fibers – Fiber obtained from the stems of plants.
Batik – A resist dyeing process in which portions of cloth are coated with wax where you do not wish to dye.
Batt – Roll or sheet of carded fiber or mixtures..
Binders – Hairs in a sheep’s fleece that run from one staple to another.
Binding Threads – Threads used to combine two or more ply into one thread.
Black Wool – Wool containing non-white fibers. Black wool is usually run in lots that are to be dyed.
Black-top Wool – Wool containing a large amount of wool grease combined at the tip of the wool staples with dirt
Bleeding – When one color runs, usually staining the white or lighter colored fiber.
Blend – A textile containing two or greater different fibers.
Blocking – The process of drying a skein of wool under tension.
Bobbin – The cylinder or spool upon which yarn or thread is wound.
Body – A term applied to wool when the staple has a good hand
Boiling Off – Removing the gum (seracin) from raw silk fiber by boiling in a mildly alkaline liquid. Also known as de-gumming.
Botany Wools – Merino Wool from Botany Bay in Australia
Britch Wool – The short curly fibers found in the belly area of the sheep. These fibers are not desireable for spinning and should be skirted out.